Protecting a folder in Unix/Linux using .htaccess and .htpasswd

To protect a folder in Unix/Linux using .htaccess and .htpasswd, use the following steps:
[1] Go to folder you wish to protect and create a file called .htaccess with the following info:

AuthUserFile /home/your_username/.htpasswd
AuthGroupFile /dev/null
AuthName “Restricted Area”
AuthType Basic
require user admin

[2] Go to the location for your .htpasswd file (typically should be in your home area outside of the public_html folder). If the .htpasswd file does not exist, create it using the following syntax. Enter the password when asked for.
> cd /home/your_username/
> htpasswd -c .htpasswd admin
[3] Make sure your .htpasswd file is readable from the web – chmod it to 644.
> chmod 644 .htpasswd
[4] If additional users need to be allowed access to the same folder,
[4.1] add the users to the .htaccess file (edit the file mentioned in step 1):
require user admin user2 user3
[4.2] add the users to the .htpasswd file (update the file mentioned in step 3). Note that the “-c” option in step 3 is not used here. The “-c” is only used when creating the .htaccess file:
> htpasswd .htpasswd user2
> htpasswd .htpasswd user3
An excellent and easy tutorial is at: A cached copy is here.


I heard this word a couple of days back and I was wondering what it is. So, I finally googled for it. It means “interchangeable”.
Definition in Finance:
Interchangeable. The term is often used to apply to financial instruments which are identical in specifications. For example, options and futures contracts are highly fungible, since they are highly standardized arrangements. On the other hand, forwards and swaps are not, since they are customized arrangements. Instruments that are highly fungible tend to be very liquid, and so transaction costs tend to be low.
Definition in the Oil Industry:
Literally means “interchangeable in trade.” Commonly used to denote products which are suitable for transmission by pipeline. Ethanol is not considered fungible in this sense, in that it would absorb any water accumulating in pockets in a pipeline.
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