Protecting a folder in Unix/Linux using .htaccess and .htpasswd

To protect a folder in Unix/Linux using .htaccess and .htpasswd, use the following steps:
[1] Go to folder you wish to protect and create a file called .htaccess with the following info:

AuthUserFile /home/your_username/.htpasswd
AuthGroupFile /dev/null
AuthName “Restricted Area”
AuthType Basic
<Limit GET POST PUT>
require user admin
</Limit>

[2] Go to the location for your .htpasswd file (typically should be in your home area outside of the public_html folder). If the .htpasswd file does not exist, create it using the following syntax. Enter the password when asked for.
> cd /home/your_username/
> htpasswd -c .htpasswd admin
[3] Make sure your .htpasswd file is readable from the web – chmod it to 644.
> chmod 644 .htpasswd
[4] If additional users need to be allowed access to the same folder,
[4.1] add the users to the .htaccess file (edit the file mentioned in step 1):
require user admin user2 user3
[4.2] add the users to the .htpasswd file (update the file mentioned in step 3). Note that the “-c” option in step 3 is not used here. The “-c” is only used when creating the .htaccess file:
> htpasswd .htpasswd user2
> htpasswd .htpasswd user3
An excellent and easy tutorial is at: http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/docs/tutorials/user.html. A cached copy is here.

Copy entire folder in Linux

To copy an entire folder (directory tree) in Linux, use the following method:
mkdir target_directory
cd source_directory
cp -ap . target_directory

Other options:
cp -apv . target_directory (for verbose results)
\cp -ap . target_directory (for unix)
More info:
linuxguide.sourceforge.net

Restart Apache in Redhat/Fedora

Restart Apache:
service httpd restart
or
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart
Note: You should be logged in as root or use su
Other commands:
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd status
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd stop
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd start
Note: /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd seems to be different from /usr/sbin/httpd
Location of “service”:
/sbin/service
Example: /sbin/service sendmail restart

Changing the default editor in Unix/Linux

Changing the default editor in Unix/Linux
unix> export EDITOR=pico
In the above example, the default editor is changed from vi to pico. So, the next time we run a program like crontab which uses the default editor, the file will open in pico and not vi.
unix> crontab -e